4th International Conference on Pediatrics and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
Richmond Chest Hospital, South Africa
Title: Effects of meconium aspiration in new born in developing countries in - Sub Saharan African perspective - How much HIV/AID’s contributes
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Biography: Mir Anwar
Background- Sub-Saharan Africa still has the highest child Mortality rates in the world. Global child mortality has dropped by 53% - from 12.7 million in 1990 to 5.9 million in 2015. South Africa has reduced its child mortality rate from 60 deaths per every 1000 live births in 1990 to 41 in 2015. Though the MDG target is 20.
Objective- To find out the Infant Mortality due to Meconium Aspiration Syndrome how much it contribute in Child Mortality where Home delivery & HIV/AIDS are predominated.
Methods- Our study were overserved & put on consideration of the following criteria – Detection of Prematurity and Fetal gasping secondary to hypoxia, inadequate removal of meconium from the airway prior to the first breath, Use of positive pressure ventilation (PPV) prior to clearing the airway of meconium etc. The inhaled meconium can cause a partial or complete blockage of the airways, causing difficulty breathing and poor gas exchange in the lungs. In addition, the substance is irritating and causes inflammation in the airways and potentially, causes chemical pneumonia. Factors that promote the passage of meconium in utero include the following: Placental insufficiency, maternal hypertension .Preeclampsia, Oligohydramnios, maternal drug abuse, especially of tobacco and cocaine, maternal infection-corioaminitis, etc.
Results- The possibility of inhaling meconium occurs in and around 10% of all births. Out of this 1-3% causes MAS. Its generally happens after 34 to 42weeks of gestation.30% of them needs ventilation In the industrialized world, meconium in the amniotic fluid can be detected in 8-25% of all births after 34 weeks' gestation. Of those newborns with meconium-stained amniotic fluid, approximately 10-15% develop meconium aspiration syndrome.
Conclusion- Our study concludes in HIV/AIDS and TB predominated developing countries with less availability of prenatal care and where home births are common, incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome is thought to be higher than, and is associated with a greater infant mortality rate.